THE EXAMS MADE SIMPLE: PIB and AIR News 22nd April, 2019

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PIB and AIR News 22nd April, 2019

1. What is Mueller's Report of US?
2. Which 2 countries conduct Varuna Naval Exercise?
3. Name Some important mountain peaks in Andaman and Nicobar islands.
4. What separates Andaman and Nicobar islands?

Today's News:

1. 22nd April: Earth Day

  • It is observed on April 22 every year to support environmental protection. The day also marks the anniversary of the Modern Environmental Movement, started in 1970. 
  • Earth Day was formally proposed by John McConnell at UNESCO conference on Environment in 1969. Later in 1971, a proclamation was signed to observe international Earth Day annually on the Vernal Equinox by UN Secretary-General U Thant .
  • The theme for this year's 'World Earth Day' has been titled as 'Protect our species' which aims to draw attention to the rapid extinction of species across the world. 

2. Services lift Santosh Trophy Football

  • The Services football team is an Indian football team representing the Indian defence services in the Santosh Trophy.
  • The Santosh Trophy is an association football knock-out competition contested by the regional state associations and government institutions under the All India Football Federation (AIFF), the sport's governing body in India.

  • The tournament was started in 1941 and is named after the president of the Indian Football Association (West Bengal's football association) at the time, Sir Manmatha Nath Roy Chowdhary of Santosh

3. Olive Ridley Turtle

  • Vulnerable — IUCN Red list
  • Habitat — warm and tropical waters of primarily in the Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic ocean.
  • Gets name from its olive colored carapace, which is heart-shaped and rounded
  • Arribadas — synchronized nesting in mass numbers,
  • Operation Olivia — Olive Ridley Turtle protection program undertaken by Indian Coast Guard
  • Mating and breeding season — winter
  • Mostly carnivorous, feeding on such creatures as jellyfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp. They will occasionally eat algae and seaweed.
  • Nesting sites in India:
    • Hope Island of Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andra Pradesh)
    • Gahirmatha beach (Odisha)
    • Astaranga coast (Odisha)
    • Beach of Rushikulya River
    • Devi River mouth

4. Active volcanoes of Indonesia:

  • The active volcano of Indonesia Mount Agung has erupted again. Two other volcanoes Mount Bromo in East Java and Mount Merapi in Yogyakarta also continues to erupt.

5. Asian Tea Alliance, a union of five tea-growing and consuming countries was launched in Guizhou in China. 

  • The members of the alliance are the Indian Tea Association, China Tea Marketing Association, Indonesian Tea Marketing Association, Sri Lanka Tea Board and Japan Tea Association.
  • Objective: 
    • To work towards enhancing tea trade, cultural exchanges, technology exchanges as well as globally promoting tea. 
    • To work towards enhancing global consumption of tea, while creating a sustainability agenda for the future of Asian tea.

6. International NGO, Reporters without Borders has released the World Press Freedom Index 2019. 

  • The index is based on the assessment of the countries’ press freedom records in the previous year. The report is partly based on a questionnaire which asks questions about pluralism, media independence, environment and self-censorship, legislative framework, transparency, and infrastructure.
  • The World Press Freedom Index 2019, topped by Norway 
  • India has dropped two places on a global press freedom index to be ranked 140th out of 180 countries.

7. Genome Sequencing to Map Population Diversity

  • The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has undertaken an indigenous genetic mapping effort to educate a generation of students on the “usefulness” of genomics.
  • Under the Project, nearly 1,000 rural youth from the length and breadth of India will have their genomes sequenced by the CSIR.
  • Genomes will be sequenced based on a blood sample. 
  • Every participant would be given a report and would be informed whether they carry gene variants that make them less responsive to certain classes of medicines.
Genome Sequencing Genome refers to an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information required to build and maintain that organism. Genome sequencing refers to figuring out the order of the DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome.

8. NASA Spots 1st Molecule of the Universe

  • The scientists have detected the first molecule to ever form from stray atoms in the universe
  • The first such molecule was helium hydride, a combination of helium and hydrogen. The discovery is a first step in unlocking the mystery of the universe’s chemistry.
  • The researchers used the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) SOFIA(Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is a Boeing 747SP jetliner modified to carry a 106-inch diameter telescope), the world’s largest airborne observatory.
  • Scientists for long had held that around 100,000 years after the big bang, helium and hydrogen combined to make a molecule called helium hydride for the first time. 
  • But scientists could not find HeH+ in space and it was unproven.  The discovery brought a long search to a happy ending

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